The legacy of Joseph Murumbi as a politician, a collector and, a businessman is expansive. He is mostly known through his political roles in Kenya and Africa, but also through the collections and archive he made. These latter two and by extension, among others, the […]
“Issue” is a thematic column, appearing four times a year, which is compiled each time by a guest editor. Our guest editors are invited to collaborate with authors from different countries, regions, and backgrounds to discuss issues that are relevant and urgent within the cultural field of Eastern Europe.
De/Re-Memorization of Portuguese Colonialism and Dictatorship: Re-Reading the Colonial and the Salazar Era and Its Ramifications Today
Memories are constitutive of contemporary culture. Maurice Halbwachs suggests that memory should answer the interests and desires of today, and thus the past is consecrated or omitted accordingly. Memory works as an everyday construction, that combines feelings, realities, points of view, and intentions. The tendency […]
Curating Memories and Shaping Minds, the Museum as a Commissar
Diluted in a repressive and demagogic context, the XIII Biennial of Havana concluded in May 2019. As part of the Biennial, the National Museum of Fine Arts opened a mega-exhibition titled The Infinite Possibility. ToThink about the Nation in the Cuban Art building. It was […]
Parallel Nonsynchronism: Times and Places in Cold War Eastern Europe
An Introduction to Issue #6 Mezosfera’s 6th thematic issue titled Parallel Nonsynchronism: Times and Places in Cold War Eastern Europe is a textual and translational compliment to the exhibition 1971 – Parallel Nonsychronism, a collaboration between the Kiscell Museum – Municipal Gallery and tranzit.hu. The […]
Parallelism – Nonsynchronism – Generational experience Ernst Bloch, on the eve of the Nazi takeover, looking for its economic and societal driving force, came to the conclusion that the different social classes of his time had divergent relations to the present. In his book, published […]
“I Carried out the Program According to Plan.” Lajos Vayer and the Hungarian Exhibitions at the Venice Biennale (1968–1972)
Modernization attempts at the Venice Biennale—a general overview of the transitional period (1968‒1972/76) Be it in the Hungarian or the international context, there have always been heated arguments both for and against the Venice Biennale, and the particular outcome of these debates have always been […]
Realism of the Future: Debates and Conflicts around László Beke’s Imagination/Idea Project
“Misunderstanding is the main factor of the development of art” Leó Popper László Beke’s 1971 Imagination/Idea project is considered by art history writing to be the first important summary of Hungarian Conceptualism. The collection created in the year of György Lukács’s death—exactly two months later—is […]
A Phantom Matrix for Post-Artistic Realities. Jerzy Ludwiński’s “The Museum of Current Art in Wrocław [General Concept]”
In 1966, Jerzy Ludwiński (1930–2000), Polish art historian, a critic, a curator, accepted an invitation from the municipal authorities of Wrocław to draw up a concept for a museum. However, instead of preparing an easily realizable project, he created one of an ambivalent nature, the […]
Teodor Rotrekl: The Case of the Too-Socialist Pop Art
The name of painter and illustrator Teodor Rotrekl (1923–2004) does not usually come up when we speak about Czech art. The eleven-volume History of Czech Visual Art (2005 and 2007) does not mention him. His works are owned by several museums in the Czech Republic, […]
Can the Artists Help Survive? – New Approaches to Art of the GDR, Looking Back while Moving Forward
1. DDR Noir The space was filled with cheap, outdated furniture from the late 1980s and early 1990s: geometrically-cut wood veneer and plastic laminate painted in black or white lacquer, chairs covered with vividly-colored flokati textiles, barstools and couches in asymmetrical shapes covered in imitation […]
Refractions of Socialist Solidarity
An Introduction to Issue #5
Mezosfera’s fifth thematic issue is published in conjunction with the Budapest presentation of the three-channel film Two Meetings and a Funeral (dir. Naeem Mohaiemen, Bangladesh, 2017) at tranztit.hu. This special issue is, at the same time, a continuation of Mezosfera’s previous edition entitled Propositions for a Pan-Peripheral Network, a beginning of tranzit.hu’s research into the transnational history of Hungary and Eastern Europe in the Cold War era.
Hungarian Experts in Nkrumah’s Ghana
Decolonization and Semiperipheral Postcoloniality in Socialist Hungary
How was Hungary connected to post-WWII decolonization? What does this episode of Eastern European history tell us about shared postcolonialities, transnational interconnectivity, and semiperipheral positioning strategies? This study aims to address these questions in the context of socialist Hungary’s evolving relations with independent Ghana under the Kwame Nkrumah regime (1957–1966), by focusing on the role of Hungarian experts in a transnational context. My aim is to show how this encounter led to the professionalization and internationalization of Hungarian postcolonial knowledge production, and how parallels in colonial history were drawn between Hungary and Africa.
Propaganda, Mon Amour*
An Arab “World” Through Hungarian Publications (1957–1989)
This essay attempts to assess socialist Hungary’s state-directed solidarity with the Arab World through publications that appeared between 1957 and 1989. Considering Hungarian publications about the Arab World as products of the idea of “socialist solidarity” or “international socialist friendship” (1956–1989), the essay analyzes why certain books appeared at specific times. Underlining the complexities and paradoxes of Hungary’s solidarity gestures with Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa, the essay investigates the juncture points of Hungary’s globalist commitments, in relation to ideological purposes, diplomatic ties, and economic interests.
The Arab Biennial in Retrospect
At this moment of history, biennials seem to be a necessary evil. They have been challenged, contested, transformed, and critiqued. In retrospect, the Arab Biennial as a project has been overclouded by its politics and seen as a failure. Nevertheless, the genealogy of the biennial has its roots in a historical necessity that started through an artists’ initiative. The formation of the General Union of Arab Plastic Artists (al-Ittihad al-'amm li-l-fannanin at-tashkiliyin al-'arab) in 1971, registered Arab artists’ position and strong need for a shared forum and unity. The awareness of their fragmented existence within what has been argued throughout most of the twentieth century as a transnational collective strength in the form of pan-Arabism, was manifest in their need for better representation.
Four Festivals and an Archive
The moment has stayed with every person who witnessed it. Free Jazz pioneer Archie Shepp improvising live on the street, surrounded by hundreds of onlookers in a trance to his otherworldly beats. The place: Algiers. The occasion: PANAF, the First Pan-African Cultural Festival, organized in 1969 by the Algerian government. Tens of thousands of people attended, hailing from across the African world, continental and diasporic alike. Théo Robichet, a Guevarist filmmaker from Paris, recorded the scene.2 In his viewfinder, Shepp appears in a shirt made of printed cloth bearing the logo of another festival, held three years earlier in Dakar: the First World Festival of Negro Arts (FESMAN).
Limits of Solidarity
Hungarian Intelligentsia and the Middle East in the Cold War
Beyond the overall realm of socialist internationalism, there were several specific contexts in Cold War Hungary that not only shaped relations on the individual’s level towards independence struggles in the Third World, but also played a role in the still today incomplete liberation of these regions. Hungary's diplomatic-ideological relations in the Middle East reveals that friendship and solidarity is much more nuanced on a personal level than to be simply controlled through ideological means.
Shifting Landscapes: On Remnants, Echoes, and Potentialities of the Histories of Non-Alignment
In Dialogue with "Two Meetings and a Funeral"
One of the most pertinent questions posited in Naeem Mohaiemen’s 2017 work Two Meetings and a Funeral is that of looking back to a world past: how to transmit the knowledge and memory of a world non-aligned? At a time when these questions are ever more pressing, Mohaiemen’s film is an important reminder of the complexities and layered nature of the past: when facing the divided world of the twentieth century, it is of utmost importance not to default the Cold War conditions to a dialectic between the East and the West, for there was a whole, third world just south of them, likewise entangled in these power relations.
Propositions for a Pan-Peripheral Network
An Introduction to Issue #4
The starting point for the thematic issue Proposition for a Pan-Peripheral Network was to pose questions about the geopolitical position of Mezosfera, a magazine based in Hungary, a member of the former Eastern Bloc. How can the notion of Eastern Europe gain a new definition […]